With the innovation of modern technology and farming inputs, production in agriculture has boosted by numerous folds up. For fulfilling the increasing need of food supply, the traditional crop varieties have been changed by the high yielding ranges. Eco-friendly change occurred in the country many thanks to improved seed selections, use of chemical fertilizers, development of watering facilities and so on. It is obvious that this revolution included the regrettable and unforeseen price of standard plant ranges, all-natural consistency and also environmental equilibrium. Production prices for plants have chaotically jumped, damaging the backbone of the marginal and tiny farmers. The succeeding routines can be delighted with the boosted manufacturing of plants, yet allowed’s not neglect that the populace has almost increased in the last 3 decades, as well as costs of fundamentals have tripled. Populace growth as well as costs of fundamentals together have actually far exceeded agricultural production.
People in big number have migrated from towns to communities for alternate income alternatives. Migration has a precise link with farming production as well as rising cost of living. It has actually long been argued that our land has actually shed fertility due to unplanned treatment, incorrect growing practices, and also inadequate as well as inappropriate state administration plan. The farmers and their typical techniques can be examined however it holds true that they are always left with what they have, and also with little or no aid, as well as with unbearable boost in, as well as scarcity of agriculture inputs. The reality was discovered during our monitoring at the field degree (January – March 2011), for example, at Kushtia area. The peasants assert, there was a time 7/8 years when they made use of to get 20 maunds (neighborhood weight measurement unit; 40 kgs make 1 maund) of rice per bigha (city measurement unit; roughly 1 bigha makes 0.33 acre), now they get 7/8 maunds on the average. It’s difficult, otherwise impossible, for the little and marginal land holders to rely on land outputs (plants) solely for their household expenditures anymore.
Currently the question occurs right here – if the agriculture manufacturing, i.e., its return is far much less than household expense, how do the farmhouses endure?
Without much explanation of peasants’ difficulty, helplessness, as well as source of income selections, we see the inner migration of occupations of farmhouse members to non-farm activities and also manufacturing facility or industry wage laborers. The farmhouses have selected cattle raising on business basis, shop-keeping etc., and also the farmhouse members have actually chosen wage labors in mills, workshops, manufacturing facilities, and markets. This sensation has cut reliance of the farmhouses on income from agriculture plants, and also has actually loosened up concern on their belongings of small landholdings. The farmhouse participants staying quite in the houses can fulfill their very own costs, and once in a while, instead invest in agriculture production. It is kept in mind that the inadequate capital of our farmhouses constrains ranch monitoring and plant diversification, which eventually and also consistently results in poor farm manufacturing.
Below are 4 study from the exact same town. In the initial instance research study (household-1), the farmer suffers due to lack of financial investment capital, without off-farm revenue earners in the household. In the 2nd and 3rd case studies (household-2,3), the farmhouses are succeeding many thanks to the involvement of the home members in bordering sectors. According to the 4th case study (household-4) even the landless farmer with enhanced labor incomes and also non-farm task is enhancing his lifestyle.
In 2010, Mr. Nuruddin (head of household-1) of town Kathulia town of Kushtia district produced maize, hemp, paddy (of ranges Gazi, BR-33), til (sesame) and papaya. He spent a total of BDT (Tk.) 50600 (USD 1 = BDT 70 roughly), and obtained an internet return of Tk. 30000. He marketed out paddy straws, jute stems, a goat, bamboos and also jack fruits and earned Tk. 18200. So, his total income throughout the year stood at Tk. 48200, while his family members expenditure for the very same year was estimated at Tk. 56500.
Mr. Nuruddin, an old male of 80, has actually obtained his 4 daughters wed away from town. Round the year the relatives see them, which raise the household expenditures. Moreover, he needs to provide little economic assistance to them from time to time, as well as send some farm as well as homestead items to the children’ homes over the last few years. So, they run family members with restrictions with food shortage nearly annually. His only child is a public college student, however assists him in farming once in a while. Nuruddin’s better half expands different leafy veggies on homestead round the year for residence consumptions.
For financial constraints due to little girls’ marital relationship, loved ones’ visit etc., he can not make larger investment to grow profitable plants, as well as can’t take great care of his crops. So, he typically obtains reduced harvest, and also can’t get cattle. He took a small business loan of Tk. 25000 in 2004, however spent all for household objectives, and also could not repay the lending in time. In 2008, the financing amount stood at Tk. 37000 with interest, which he could not pay off. So, with the advice of a financial institution field policeman, he obtained another funding of Tk. 39000, where he repaid his previous due financing. At the end of 2010 the secondly due finance stood at around Tk. 43000 once again. He does not recognize just how to pay back this amount. At the end of 2010, he gave out 2 bighas of come down on kot (local land leasing system) for Tk. 100000. He claims, “Besides outstanding small business loan, yearly I have a shortage of Tk. 4000-5000. I have also small car loans from NGOs, which I pay back with difficulty, however superior small business loan are big tension for me”.
Nuruddin’s child included, “Farmers get bank loans and also complete them rapidly to fulfill food and various other persisting family requirements without assuming much that they need to settle it in time, which’s the method the car loans been available in larger amount in some years with included passions, for which farmers market out lands at last in most cases.”
Rm. Arshed Ali (head of household-2) produced rice of different selections including Gazi, IRRI-10 and also 28. He obtained a harvest of 90 maunds (3600 kgs) worth Tk. 77100. He spent Tk. 29250 for production. His net return was Tk. 47850. He additionally created eggplants of 30 maunds (1200 kgs) worth Tk. 15600. He invested Tk. 7000 for this manufacturing and obtained a web return of Tk. 8600. He spent Tk. 2000 to create 10 maunds (400 kgs) of cabbage worth Tk. 5000 with a web return of Tk. 3000. He marketed paddy straws at Tk. 12000. From all the plants of his grown land he made a net return of Tk. 71450 in 2010.
In 2010, he reared cattle and also made a net return of Tk. 50000 with an investment of Tk. 350000, in which Tk. 30000 is approximated as overdue family labor.
Arshed’s one kid aged 30 with secondary school degree education is a factory worker. Presently, he earns an overall of Tk. 60000 in a year. The household earns an overall of Tk. 181450 every year from both farm creates, livestock as well as non-farm earning, while the family members expenditure is estimated at Tk. 180000.
In 2009, Arshed rented in a fish farm, and also yet could not make money from it, which year he had a natural medication store in the village market. From this company he made from earnings of around 30000. He also operates in the town as a moderator in numerous settlement and litigation, where he has an earnings, which might not be estimated. However, from these contributed to this earnings from livestock rearing, he made a brick residence in 2009-2010.
He said, “With traditional plant production with little location of land, we can not run our family. Given that I have to maintain a family members status, and some guests additionally come often, so my household expense is additionally high contrasted to others. That’s why I think of gaining from different sources.”
Mr. Abdur Rahim (head of household-3) produced rice of different ranges consisting of Gazi, IRRI-10, 11, 12, 9. He obtained a harvest of 78 maunds (3120 kgs) worth Tk. 54200. He spent Tk. 31477 for manufacturing. His net return was Tk. 22723. He also created jute of 8 maunds (320 kgs) worth Tk. 12000. He invested Tk. 4000 for this production and also got an internet return of Tk. 8000. He produced onion (2 maunds = 80 kgs) worth Tk. 2000 as well as garlic (1.5 maunds = 60 kgs) worth Tk. 6000. For manufacturing of both onion and also garlic he invested Tk. 2000, as well as from these he made an internet return of Tk. 6000. He offered paddy straws as well as hemp stems at Tk. 20000. From all the crops of his grown land he made a web return of Tk. 56723 in 2010.
In 2010, he raised cattle as well as made a web return of Tk. 47000 with an investment of Tk. 20000.
Rahim’s two sons, one aged 32 with no formal education, as well as the other aged 30 with secondary school degree education, are factory workers. Currently, they gain a total of Tk. 156000 in a year. The family earns a total of Tk. 259723 from both ranch produces, cattle and also non-farm earning, while the family expense is approximated at Tk. 199700. This year (2011) he takes another 15 kathas (local area dimension unit; 1 katha makes about 1.6 decimals) of arrive at kot at Tk. 70000.
Around 15 years back, Rahim parted from moms and dads, and started his small family members on his very own. That time he had 3 bighas of land. He acquired another 3 bighas of land in the last ten years. He acquired land pieces of 10/12 kathas each at once at Tk. around 20000-30000 per bighas. 2 years back, he created block home with an expense of around Tk. 300000.
He stated, “Earnings from land is falling currently. When we got around 20 maunds of rice per bigha. In 2015 we created 8-10 maunds of rice per bigha. Family members earnings generally comes from cattle as well as goats. With this earnings, I do this that, purchase as well as raise points. Money for home construction additionally originated from livestock rearing. Besides, the elder child works in firm for last 2 years, and also the more youthful one works for 4/5 years. They contribute to the revenue. They help run family members. ”
Akram Hossain (head of household-4) has no Smile Farm land at all, yet he keeps land for farming each year. Over years he offers labor to farming ranches and also runs his family members with labor incomes. He rears cattle and also goat yearly, and also therefore makes some revenue from it. In 2010, he made around Tk. 54000 from wage labors at Tk. 150 daily and at Tk. 4500 on the average per month. In 2010, he kept 4 bighas of arrive at kot. From the production of rice and also wheat, he made an earnings of Tk. 22260 as well as Tk. 4900 specifically. He also gained Tk. 7200 from sale of paddy straws. From livestock raising during the year, he obtained an internet return of Tk. 15000. He likewise broke down one and half bighas of land for share chopping, where he obtained his share of crop worth Tk. 6000. From both ranch productions, cattle raising and labor incomes, he made a total of Tk. 109360. His household expense is computed at Tk. 71000 for year 2010.
When asked about his earning and farm manufacturing, he claimed, “The rice I get from growing remains mostly for household consumption over a year. I market out other plants. My main income is ranch labor, as well as livestock and also goat rearing. I can birth the education expenses of my child of course seven, and likewise can conserve some cash for next year financial investment for livestock.”
The other farmers discussing Akram commented that Akram does not need to market out plants since he earns from labor incomes to satisfy family members costs. They likewise said, individuals like him in the village are succeeding nowadays. They go to stable status.
Side by side with the big sectors, expansion of tiny scale sectors at the semi-urban areas adjacent to rural areas with correct interest to environmental worries and also precaution in all districts, possibly in any way upazilas and also union levels (local management devices), can create better employment of the farmhouse members. Regional individuals develop their own cutting-edge suggestions and business, which recruit country youth. Oftentimes, the industry individuals and also interest groups are located acting and also propagating against small markets. Neighborhood public officials (line ministries) can fix such dilemmas if any kind of, and motivate the small entrepreneurs at urban outskirts beside backwoods, with incentives if necessary. If markets especially pertaining to food handling, country transportation, or family necessaries expand at rural areas with appropriate caution for setting and dangerous labor, and also without losing cultivable land, can rather save farming families from shedding lands, assistance enduring farming manufacturing and also conference other expenditures consisting of those for education. The bad, limited and little farmhouse participants are discovered to have actually spent share of their revenue from different off-farm activities (for example, from cattle raising) as well as sectors in their agriculture farming, which marks a far better administration of their agriculture farming and land. This indicates an improved and encouraging country economy.